## 2021.11.21 独立判断与随波逐流

By | 11/27/2021

2021.11.21 独立判断与随波逐流

读《西方现代哲学讲义》阿伦特篇有一节很有意思的片段。
“结果,独立判断就成了一件责任风险极大的事。如果你循规蹈矩,做对了当然好;做错了,你也能很方便地为自己辩护:‘这不怪我,规矩就是这样定的’或者‘大家都是这样做的’。也就是说,有无数人和你一起分担错误的风险,躲藏在人海之中的你实际上是匿名的;即便出错也可以指望‘法不责众’来逃避责任”。
“可是如果坚持独立判断呢?你就是面目清晰的个体,你无法将判断的责任推诿给众人,也无法诉诸通用法则;因此你的责任是可辨识的,也是可追究的。做对了,那是应该的;做错了,就是你自己导致的。你没有任何托词,没办法推给规矩,也没办法躲到‘法不责众’的后面,你必须为自己承担全部责任”。
而当我读《毛泽东选集》井冈山的斗争一篇时,毛爷爷在斗争中说到,“湖南省委对于此件的行动计划。。数星期内,曾三遍其主张。。。。第一次袁德生来,赞成罗霄山脉中断政权计划。。。第二次杜修经、杨开明来,坚持‘绝对正确’的向湘南发展。。。第三次袁德生又来,坚持‘绝对正确’的向湘东去。。。我们接受了这样硬性的指示,不从则迹近违抗,从则明治失败,真实不好处。”这些从省委下达的意见,从县委到特委到军委举行联席会议后一致决议会失败。
阿伦特认为“平庸之恶”是丧失思考能力的结果,艾希曼认为自己不仅是服从法律,还是让自己的意志与“法律背后的原则”相统一。省委几度给出三个截然不同的意见,但从军委以下皆认为省委的意见可能会导致失败。那么身为个体的人,应当如何决议?

这正是我三十而立前后的两者矛盾思想的冲突,以前我总坚持独立判断,我坚信我做出的决定一定是经过自己审慎思考的,我坚持自己对结果负责;而当我自以为终于想通了一些点,决定投身到混沌的(政治、人际、社会)纠缠中去时,当我终于以为随波逐流可能是一大武器时,我又意识到了,仍旧没有银弹。

“阿伦特曾经说,‘就各种特殊情况做出判断而言,没有什么恒常的通行标准,也不存在什么确定无疑的规则’。我们只能在具体的处境中,冒着风险,真诚地去做出自己独立的判断,并为此承担责任。这是现代社会的公民格外艰巨的道德任务。”
《矛盾论》中,同样也提到,“所谓形而上学的或庸俗进化论的宇宙观,就是用孤立的、静止的和片面的观点去看世界”,“(马克思主义)辩证法的宇宙观,主要地就是教导人们要善于去观和分析各种事物的矛盾的运动,并根据这种分析方法,指出解决矛盾的方法。”
由此可见,这些问题历来存在,且存在在几乎每个凡人身上。毛推崇马克思主义辩证思想,就是因为看待事物不能片面,不能唯心。没有银弹,只有纠缠。熵增定律也告诉了我们,宇宙的发展也从来不是减少和增加,而是混沌的。

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